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temperature Rise

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Toroidal Transformers generate heat due to the losses within the energy conversion processes. A typical graph of temperature rise versus power consumption would be as shown below. (Pout=Actual Power Output, Pnom=Nominal Power Rating)
Typical toroidal transformer temperature rise graph



These losses may be split into two main components :

Core Losses

The toroidal core is strip-wound using the highest grades of 'Grain Oriented Silicon Steel' (G.O.S.S.) The high grade of steel exhibits very low losses, typically 1 Watt per Kilogram of steel.
Typical figures for core losses would be as follows :
VA Rating
[VA]
Core Losses
[Watts]
15
30
50
80
0.21
0.26
0.43
0.51
120
160
225
300
0.76
0.97
1.3
1.7
500
625
800
1000
2.5
3.1
3.8
4.8

Copper Losses

The main source of losses in a toroidal transformer are Copper losses, and they arise from the resistance of the copper wire used in the windings. The losses (P) can be calculated from the equation P=I*I*R
(commonly know as 'I squared R loss') where I is the current flowing in the winding, and R is the DC resistance of the winding.
Typical copper losses are as follows:
VA Rating
[VA]
Copper Losses
[Watts]
15
30
50
80
2.5
5.0
6.6
11.8
120
160
225
300
13.9
20.8
21.3
22.5
500
625
800
1000
31.0
39.0
41.0
43.0

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